District Heating



A District Heating (DH) System supplies large areas, including apartment complexes, commercial and official buildings, with heat via hot water that is economically produced by environmentally friendly combined heat-and-power plants (CHP) or other large-scale heat-production facilities. This innovative type of heating system makes it possible to reduce energy consumption by 53% and to reduce air pollutants by 46%, compared with a Centralized Heating (CH) system which is installed in apartment complex respectively.

Combined heat and power also known as cogeneration is a way to increase the efficiency of power plants. Standard power plants effectively use just 40 percent of the fuel they burn to produce electricity. Sixty percent of the fuel used in the electric production process ends up being rejected or "wasted" up the smokestack.

Combined heat and power uses this reject heat to heat buildings in a surrounding area through a district energy system. Combined heat and power is only possible when there is an area near the plant that has a need for the heat a downtown area, a college campus or an industrial development.


District heat is produced at CHP plants or at heating plants. Clients receive heat through the hot water circulating in the district heating network.

The primary flow temperature of the district heating water varies    between 60 and 120 C usually, depending on the system. The temperature is at its lowest in summer, when heat is only needed for hot service water. The temperature of water returning from clients to the production plants ranges usually between 25 and 65C.

In buildings, heat is used for heating rooms, for providing hot tap water and for air conditioning.

District Heating consumers can also receive heat from a heating plant using for example biomass as fuel. Typically, CHP are either centralised or decentralised. Centralised CHP are usually much larger than decentralised CHP. There is yet another difference between centralised and decentralised CHP. The former were originally electricity plants (generating only electricity), while the latter were originally heating plants (generating only heat). While some of the decentralised CHP are new, the main purpose of all such installations is to generate heat.

Pump Station ''A3'' of Kozani District Heating (Kozani city/ Kozani Prefecture/West Macedonia Greece).










Centralised CHP are typically located in large cities; decentralised CHP are located in rather small centres.


Pump Station of Aminteo region District Heating (Aminteo town/Florina Prefecture/West Macedonia Greece).











EXAKM .... :



Our Company -focused on the District Heating field for many years- is the pioneer domestic manufacturer of Consumer's District Heating Thermal Substations. EXAKM A.B.E.T.E is the first domestic company which studied, designed and produced these kind of substations for the local market.  


EXAKM ....: Typical District Heating Thermal Substation for Kozani District Heating.



















Gathering a really significant experience and know-how on various district heating systems, our company has supplied more than 4.800 complete pieces of Consumer's District Heating Substations for Kozani Public District Heating Company (DEYAK), more than 1.000 complete pieces for Aminteo Public District Heating Company (DETEPA), and a considerable quantity of regulating equipment for the distribution primary network of Ptolemaida Public District Heating Company (DETHP).



EXAKM ...: Typical District Heating Thermal Substation installations at Aminteo District Heating.





Apart from the above, our company -being the largest domestic manufacturer of District Heating Substations- has undertaken the relevant project for Megalopoli city on 2005. A number of 250 complete District Heating Substations are being prepared for Megalopoli Public District Heating Company (DEPYPPAPM).


....: Manufacturing line of Substations for Megalopoli District Heating Project.(Megalopoli city/Arcadia Prefecture/ Peloponnesus - South Greece)









EXAKM ....: Typical household district heating installation in Kozani.




EXAKM ....: District Heating Substations for the Megalopoli town under preparation for Hydraulic Tests in our factory.











Useful District Heating links:  


Euroheat & Power



International District Energy Association (IDEA) http://www.districtenergy.org


International Energy Agency (IEA)



Danish Board of District Heating (DBDH)



West Macedonia Development Company (ANKO)




Useful Reports regarding District Heating in Hellas:

(Greek language)


1). 9 years operation of Kozani District Heating network


2). Brief presentation of Aminteo District Heating


3). Brief report of Ptolemaida District Heating results